You only get one shot at capturing the magic of your big day on film so it is vital that you pick the right person for the job. Below is a list of what I consider to be some important points to bear in mind when critiquing your options. You can use it as a checklist when evaluating the professional videographers in your area who provide a comprehensive wedding video service.
Experience – although it is possible for somebody new to the profession to film and produce a first-class wedding video, it is also possible that they may have some teething problems with their equipment or technique and miss important parts of your day. If you want to make sure that every moment is captured for posterity, it is best to hire a videographer who has successfully completed a number of wedding videos in the past and who has a long association with cameras in general.
Attitude – if you would like a video record of your wedding that captures all the emotions of the day and every special moment that is shared between yourself and your partner, you need to find a sympathetic videographer who understands your requirements. Some professionals take a very businesslike approach to filming the ceremony and celebrations afterwards, an attitude that often results in videos that are low on emotional content. Somebody who is happy to blend into the background and film events as they unfold is likely to capture raw emotions more effectively than a cameraman who spends all day herding people into formal group shots.
Price – cost is a major factor for most couples when choosing a wedding videographer, especially as there are usually so many other expenses that need to be paid for at the same time. However, it is not a good idea to look at this factor in isolation, for obvious reasons. I recommend looking at exactly what is included in the price for each individual that you are considering, so you can make an informed judgement as to whether they offer value for money or not. If one person seems to be particularly expensive, it may be that they have included certain costs that others have listed as optional extras.
Availability – this causes problems for many couples in Australia and all over the world. Whilst I do not suggest that you plan your whole wedding around the videographer with whom you wish to work, it could be worth being a little flexible with your dates if you have your heart set on a particular person.
The easiest way to establish whether somebody is capable of producing the kind of wedding video that you want is to look at what they have produced for other couples. If you find a videographer who ticks all the boxes as far as the points above are concerned but who has no examples of their work online, ask if they can send you some sample DVDs for you to view with your partner at home.
DVD Architect Studio is a great piece of software from Sony that allows you to create highly customized menus complete with text, graphics, buttons, music and other cool features for your DVD or Blu-Ray projects. One of the most important elements of your menu screen is the background image, which can help set the mood or tone of your production. Architect Studio comes with a host of fairly usable background images for anything from sports-themed projects to wedding video productions, but what if you want to use one of your own images as a menu background? Here's how to do it:
IMPORTING A CUSTOM MENU BACKGROUND IN TWO EASY STEPS
1. Save the image you want to use as a high quality .jpg, .png file or similar in Photoshop or some other photo editing program (DVD Architect Studio will even recognise .psd files). In the example below I am saving the image with a .png extension.
2. In the bottom left-hand corner of DVD Architect Studio, click on the Explorer tab and navigate to the image file. Single-clicking on the file will make DVD Architect Studio generate a preview of the image. Double-clicking on the file will make it appear as the default background menu image. That's it!
You can change the aspect ratio or resolution of the display by going to File -> Properties.
Twixtor is a powerful plug-in that 'intelligently slows down, speeds up or changes the frame rate of your image sequences' as described by its creator Re:Vision Effects, Inc.
Twixtor achieves its well-known slow motion effect by inferring previously non-existent frames between pre-existing 'real' frames of your video footage, a process known as interpolation. Because the algorithms underlying Twixtor are so good at tracking motion between discrete frames it is able to fabricate fairly accurate 'filler' frames that fit between the pre-existing frames of your video and thereby represent what is probably occurring between one time point and another. Because a heap of new frames are created after applying the Twixtor effect the time taken to play the effected footage from start to finish at any given frame rate increases and the illusion of slow motion is created. A key feature of Twixtor is the ability to re-time the playback of particular frames within a video clip, otherwise termed 'time remapping' or 'keyframing'. This can be used to both slow down and speed up a given section of footage. In this blog post I provide a step-by-step guide to utilising the time remap feature of Twixtor in Sony Vegas/Movie Studio to achieve both a fast motion and slow motion effect using a clip of a racecar as a case study.
TIME REMAPPING IN TWIXTOR: A HOW-TO GUIDE
Here is the short clip I want to time remap:
And here is what I want to end up with after using Twixtor's time remap feature:
The time remapped clip is actually part of a larger promotional video I produced for Curtin Motorsport Team, an engineering team at Curtin University in Western Australia. You can view the full video here if you want to see how the fast-slow-fast motion transition within this clip was used in the context of the whole video (the above clip appears at approximately 0:28). The idea with the original clip was to modify it such that it slowed down for the duration of the racecar's turn to capture the sliding motion of the vehicle and to inject a bit more drama and 'cool' factor into the video. A previously unintentional side effect of this was a speeding up of the clip both before and after the turn, but we'll get to that. Here's how to go about time remapping your own video clip:
1. Import the clip you want to time remap into the Sony Vegas timeline, and cut it to size. For the racecar clip, all I want is a clip of the racecar's entire sliding turn, plus a second or two of footage either side of that. All in all, I end up with a clip 78 frames in duration. I recommend changing the time format at this point to Absolute Frames (as I've done in the image below), as you'll find it will make it easier to time remap the clip. To do this, right-click on the large time display at the top left of the Timeline window, select 'Time Format' then 'Absolute Frames'.
2. Now you need to decide where exactly in your clip you want the slow motion effect to kick in. Before you do this, zoom in to your clip by clicking the 'plus' (+) or 'Zoom In Time' symbol situated at the bottom right of the Timeline window enough times such that when you press the left right and arrow keys on your keyboard to scroll through your clip, each press of a key equates to moving back or forward by a single frame. You can confirm this by referring to the Absolute Frames time display you just enabled. For the racecar clip, I want the slow motion effect to start at frame 35, when the car has pretty much just begun its sliding turn (see below). At this point all you want to do is simply note the frame number down.
3. Now find where you want the slow motion effect to end. For my clip, this is at frame 60, when the car has just come out of its turn and started to straighten up (see below). Again, note down the frame number.
4. Apply the Twixtor effect to your clip by finding the plug-in in the Video FX toolbar on the left side of the Sony Vegas interface, then click and drag the Default option onto your video clip in the Timeline window.
5. In the Twixtor options panel, leave Display set to Source and set Time Remap to Frame Number. For this clip I will set all other options as follows but please note these settings may not work best for what you are trying to achieve (I suspect I will address optimal Twixtor settings in a future post):
6. Click on the small clock or 'Animate' icon to the far right of the Frame slider panel and a small timeline window will drop down within the Twixtor options panel. Ensure 'Sync Cursor to Media Timeline' (it looks like a padlock beside a cursor line) is selected. Enabling this means that when you change the position of the cursor in the Vegas Timeline window the cursor in the newly appeared Twixtor timeline window will reflect that change and vice versa. Give it a try to make sure you understand how it works.
Now it is time to describe the Twixtor timeline window in more detail so you know what exactly you are dealing with. There are two lanes labelled 'Twixtor' and 'Frame'. Think of the Frame lane as a direct representation of the normal Sony Vegas Timeline window. Think of the Twixtor lane as a representation of how the original frames of your video clip as they now exist in time are being remapped to earlier or later points in time. Here's what I mean by that. At the moment you can see two 'nibs' or shape dots, one in each lane of the Twixtor timeline. These nibs represent keyframes, or key points in your video clip which signal the start or end of a slow or fast motion section of your video clip. At this point, these nibs are positioned at the '0' frame timepoint of the clip i.e. the very beginning of the clip (see below). If you hover your mouse cursor over the bottom nib (the one in the Frame lane) two numbers will appear. The bottom number refers to a particular frame from your original clip. This number is always the same as the frame number indicated by the cursor in the Twixtor timeline window (and, if your cursors are synced, the Sony Vegas Timeline window). At the moment this number is '0', because that's where the nibs are currently positioned. The top number, however, represents the new frame number to which the original frame has been reassigned in time. At the moment this number also reads '0', which means no reassignment has occurred and the clip is as it has always been. The positioning of these nibs means your 'Twixtored' clip will start where the original clip started, which is probably a good thing. Once you've reassigned a frame from your original clip you will understand the above a little better. So let's do that now.
You're now going to specify where exactly you want the slow motion effect to begin in the yet-to-be-created clip. Please note the difference between what I've just stated and what you did previously, which is figure out where exactly in the original clip you want the slow motion effect to begin. Remember, we are reassigning frames in time which means any given frame from the original clip that we want to signify the start of a slow or fast motion section will be remapped to a new timepoint in the Twixtored clip. Key to understanding this idea is the fact that your new clip will not actually be longer in duration than your original clip, even though you are applying a slow motion effect to a good portion of it. Check the two clips at the beginning of this post for confirmation. They are as long as each other, except the frames have been remapped in the second clip so that the middle section (where the car is turning) takes up a much larger portion of the clip than it previously did, whilst the beginning and end sections of the clip have been squeezed into much shorter time spaces.
7. In either the Twixtor timeline window or Sony Vegas Timeline window, move the cursor to that point in time where you want the frame from the original clip (i.e. the one you first noted down earlier) to appear in the Twixtored clip. Once you've done this, enter the frame number from the original clip into the text field of the Frame row in the Twixtor options panel and press Enter. A new pair of nibs will appear in the Twixtor timeline window signifying that you have successfully remapped a frame from your original clip to a new frame timepoint in the Twixtored clip.
For the racecar clip, I want that part of the clip where the car has just begun its sliding turn (i.e. frame 35) to start at a much earlier point in time (say, frame 10) in the new clip. Therefore, I will move my cursor to frame 10 in the Twixtor timeline window and type '35' into the aforementioned text field and press Enter. This has reassigned frame 35 from my original clip to frame 10 of the new clip. This means everything before frame 35 (i.e. frames 1-34) in my original clip will be squeezed into frames 1-9 in the modified clip, thereby significantly speeding this section up.
By hovering my mouse over the newly created nib in the Frame lane of the Twixtor timeline window, I can see that frame 35 (as indicated by the bottom number) from the original clip has now been remapped to frame 10 (as indicated by the top number) of the Twixtored clip. To visually confirm this you can change the Display option at the top of the Twixtor options panel to 'Twixtored output'. In my case, when the timeline cursor is positioned at frame 10 in either of the timeline windows the preview window at the top right of the Sony Vegas interface displays the frame that used to be placed at the 35th frame in my original clip.
You might be wondering how I arrived upon frame 10 as the timepoint at which frame 35 from the original racecar clip should be remapped. To be honest, this is probably what will you spend the most time figuring out as you develop your Twixtored clip and will depend on your preferences for timing, look and feel. By remapping frame 35 to frame 10 I feel that the slow motion section of the Twixtored racecar clip kicks in when the music in the Curtin Motorsport Team video complements it most. I also like the rate at which the 'squeezed' frames play before (and after) the slow motion effected section. Another thing to remember is that the earlier in time you remap the original frame, the stronger the slow motion effect is going to be, depending on the frame timepoint at which you specify the effect to stop. Let's go ahead and do that now.
8. This step is very similar to the last, in that you are going to reassign the second frame number you noted down earlier to a new position in the Twixtored clip. This is the last frame of the original clip that you want to apply the slow motion effect to. If you changed the Display option to 'Twixtored output' at any point, change it back to 'Source' now. Once again, navigate to that part of the clip where you would like the last frame of slow motion from the original clip to appear in the Twixtored clip. This is probably somewhere just prior to that point in time at which the original clip ends. Once your cursor is in position, type the second frame number you noted down earlier into the text field of the Frame slider panel in the Twixtor options panel and press Enter. A new pair of nibs will appear in the Twixtor timeline window, showing that a new frame has been remapped.
For the racecar clip, I want that part of the clip where the car emerges from its sliding turn (frame 60) to appear right near the end (around frame 68) of the new clip. Therefore, I will move my cursor to frame 68 in the Twixtor timeline window, type '60' into the Frame row text field and press Enter. As a result, frame 60 from my original clip is reassigned to frame 68 of the new clip. Because of this, everything after frame 60 (i.e. frames 61-78) in my original clip will be squeezed into frames 69-78 in the modified clip. Also note that whilst that part of the clip where the car is turning originally played for a duration of 25 frames (i.e. frame 35-60) at a rate of 29.97 frames per second (fps) this section will now play for a duration of 58 frames (i.e. frame 10-68) at a rate of 29.97 fps. This means this part of the clip will be more than twice as slow as before.
9. Now you have but one final keyframe to map; the one at the very end of the clip. Identify how many frames your original clip comprises by navigating to the end of the clip in the Sony Vegas Timeline window and make sure the vertical cursor is placed over the last frame. Remember, the Twixtor timeline cursor will mimic its position so don't worry about doing the same in the Twixtor timeline window. Type that frame number into the Frame row of the Twixtor options panel like before and press Enter. Your new clip's final keyframe has been mapped and your clip is ready to be previewed/rendered.
I know my racecar clip is 78 frames in length by left-clicking at the very end of the clip in the Timeline window and identifying the frame number shown on the timecode display. Therefore, I will type '78' into the Twixtor Frame row text field and press Enter. This creates my modified clip's final time remap, although in essence all I've done is simply tell Twixtor that frame 78 from the original clip should stay where it is (like frame 0 of the original clip, which is mapped to frame 0 of the modified clip as previously mentioned), therefore creating a Twixtored clip of identical duration.
I find the best way to go about making fine adjustments to my project and previewing it without without having to render the clip every time is by selecting/highlighting that part of the clip I want to watch in the Sony Vegas Timeline window and pressing Shift + B. This buffers the selected region for smooth playback (Twixtor will sap a fair portion of your computer's graphics processing power, making high-quality playback of your clip in real time virtually impossible in most cases). Once I'm happy with how the clip looks in the preview window I'll go ahead and render the project.
If you want more information on time remapping or any other Twixtor-related topic within the context of Sony Vegas, Sony Movie Studio or another non-linear editor I recommend taking a look at Re:Vision Effects, Inc.'s tutorials page here. Alternatively, throw me a line and I'll try to help you out!
This post, like all others I author, is effectively a work in progress; updated as needed. Was it informative? Easy to understand? Feel free to leave any comments or questions below!
In a previous post I described how footage previewed in Sony Vegas would always appear different post-render. To begin shining some light on this problem I talked about the relationship between bits, pixels and the RGB colour model. This post continues the discussion. Note that any statement made in reference to an 'image' or 'images' is implicitly inclusive of 'video'.
PART 2: Colour management
Consider this; if you load this webpage on any two computers with different operating systems and compare the many colours outputted to recreate the image below, they are not going to be the exactly the same on both devices. The image may even look noticeably different.
Even though both computers most likely employ the RGB colour model to display colour, the images will still differ in some way or another. This happens for various reasons. For example, different types of LCD displays (RGB-LED, CCFL, etc.) can affect the accuracy of colour reproduction, and screen resolution (i.e. number of dots per inch) can affect just how accurately colours are represented. This issue extends not only between different computer models, but also a wide range of devices capable of displaying colour. Thank goodness, then, for colour management systems. Colour management systems ensure any given RGB value is represented as accurately as possible on devices including but not limited to image scanners, laptops, digital cameras, TV screens and printers. If you own a Windows-based computer, colour management is applied at the operating-system level through the Windows Color System (WCS) platform, whilst Mac-OS based systems use an application programming interface called ColorSync. Regardless of the device, colour management is an important consideration; after all, colour is of the utmost importance in the world of digital art. The main thing that concerns us, however, and the key to understanding my problem with levels in Sony Vegas, is the part of these colour management programs that defines the output behaviour of a particular device in relation to an absolute colour space.
An absolute colour space is a set of colours associated with absolute colorimetric quantities such that each colour within the space is completely unambiguous in its interpretation and display on a particular device. Each colour space is based upon a particular colour model such as RGB or CMYK and while many colour spaces may be founded upon the same colour model, the range of colours (called the gamut) defined within those spaces will differ. For example, the Adobe RGB and sRGB colour spaces are both based upon the RGB colour model, but the Adobe RGB gamut contains a larger range of cyan-greens than the sRGb gamut. Other examples of RGB colour spaces are CIE XYZ, ProPhoto RGB and CIE L*a*b*.
Adobe RGB and sRGB are available on many digital SLR cameras as a means of storing image colour information in the JPEG container format. Both have their advantages and disadvantages. By selecting a particular colour space preset on your DSLR, you are effectively limiting the range of colours that can possibly exist within that image to the gamut encompassed by the colour space opted for. This can be overcome, to some degree, by translating the image's existing colour space into a different colour space, but here you risk losing information. Why? Well, imagine capturing an image in Adobe RGB and then converting its colour space to sRGB. Due to the gamut limitations of sRGB, any colours in the image that exist outside the sRGB colour space will be converted to colours that exist within the sRGB gamut only. Those colours will be incorrectly represented in the new colour space. But say you capture an sRGB image and convert it into the higher-gamut Adobe RGB colour space. Surely the colour information is made more accurate? Alas, this is not the case. The algorithm which converts one colour space to another will inevitably produce so-called 'rounding errors' which fail to exactly represent the old colours within the new gamut, particularly where low bit depth is concerned. These errors are also present when converting from a higher-gamut to lower-gamut colour space. The best way to avoid the above problems is to shoot in RAW mode so that a colour space (or multiple, if desired) may be independently applied to the original footage type after that data has been captured, not during.
I have elaborated upon the finer points of colour space conversion and colour management in this post because, as a videographer and oftentimes photographer, it has the potential to occur at many points throughout my workflow, particularly if I am not dealing with RAW-format data. In the third and final post of this blog series, I will name and describe in more detail the different colour spaces used natively in the various digital devices and online mediums I employ from video capture to presentation, and therein reveal the simple solution which solved my problem with levels in Sony Vegas.
This post, like all others I author, is a work in progress; updated as needed. Was it informative? Easy to understand? Feel free to leave any comments or questions below!
The following is Part 1 in a series of posts regarding a confusing problem I encountered in Sony Vegas after rendering a video project. My footage looked fine in the Sony Vegas video preview window but after the rendering process it appeared to have more contrast, extensive information loss in the lowlights, a slightly grainier appearance and a different colour scheme. See the difference for yourself below:
If you compare the dark-coloured guitars just to the right of the actor in the two images, you can see how they've been partly blacked out in the rendered video (bottom image). The aforementioned colour change is also quite conspicuous. For example, check out the guitar at the top right of the frame; it's gone from blue to green! Some videographers might actually prefer the visual style of the rendered product over the original look, but that's not what I was aiming for in this music video...plus, I wanted to know what was behind the change in appearance. The problem persisted despite experimenting with different cameras, rendering the footage as several different file types including .avi and .mp4 and playing each of those files in various media players including VLC and Quicktime. I eventually found the answer lying in a dark, dank corner of the Internet and decided to give it the exposure it deserves. Unlike the very haphazardly articulated solution I chanced upon, however, mine will hopefully include a more thorough explanation of the issue so that you, the reader, know more about the 'why' as well as the 'how' of the issue. So let's begin...
PART 1: Bits, pixels and the RGB colour model
Try to make out a single pixel or pel (short for 'picture element') on your computer screen. Which one to pick, huh? A relatively large proportion of monitors are HD (High Definition) displays, which means they're 1366 pixels wide by 768 pixels tall. That's a lot of pixels to choose from...1,049,088 to be exact!
The number of distinct colours each pixel on your screen is capable of displaying at one time is determined by how many bits, or pieces of binary information, encode the pixel's output (in combination with the display modes supported by your graphics adapter). This is called a pixel's bit depth or colour depth. A 1-bit pixel can display 2^1 colours = 2 colours (i.e. monochrome display), a 2-bit pixel can display 2^2 colours = 4 colours, a 3-bit pixel can display 2^3 colours = 8 colours and so on. It's a fairly simple relationship; the more bits per pixel, the more distinct colours it can display...up to a certain point. You're probably viewing this webpage on a monitor composed of 24- or 32-bit pixels (for Windows users, you can check this under the Display tab in the System Information tool), meaning that your monitor can display up to 2^24 (i.e. 16,777,216) different colours! Since the human eye can only discern up to 10 million different colours, the usefulness of a 24-bit display might seem negligible, but try calculating 2^23 and see what you get...you'll find it takes 24 bits per pixel to encode enough colours to pass your eye's 10 million-colour threshold (this is why a 24-bit display is also called a True Colour display on Windows operating systems. Apple calls it 'millions of colours'). As an aside, you might be wondering why companies bother manufacturing a 32-bit display system when the 24-bit system already encodes for every visible colour. It's because those 8 extra bits aren't used to encode colour. Instead, they're used to describe information related to opacity (click here to find out more). This means a 32-bit pixel can display no more distinct colours than a 24-bit pixel (i.e. almost 17 million). So that's all well and good, but how exactly do the bits of information describe pixel colour?
Assuming we have a system where 24 bits are being used to encode for pixel output, every one of those 16.7 million colours can be reproduced using a combination of three colours known as the primary colours; they are red, green and blue. This method of colour creation is known as additive colour.
Additive colour mixing is the foundation of the RGB colour model, designed primarily for use in electronic systems such as computer monitors and television screens. The distinct colours being outputted by every pixel on your own monitor needed to recreate the above image of an insect are being produced through additive colour mixing. Assuming you have a 24- or 32-bit display system (which you probably do) 8 bits (i.e. 1 byte) per pixel are dedicated to describing the intensity of the colour red (i.e. the red component), another 8 bits encode the green component and the final 8 bits encode the blue component. In graphic software, the component value of each of these colours may be numerically represented using a scale from 0 to 255 (the information range a single byte is just capable of handling).
A value of 0 represents black, whilst a value of 255 represents white. As you can imagine, a value of 36 for the red component encodes a very dark red, whilst a red value of 234 describes a much brighter, more saturated red (see below). Applying this concept on a grander scale, you can think of an LCD display as a grid-like arrangement of hundreds of thousands of little red, green and blue lamps, each with their own dimmer switch.
Now, knowing that each of the millions of pixels in a 24-bit display is capable of outputting 256 different intensities of red, green and blue (plus white) and combining them through additive colour mixing, the fact that your computer monitor can display 16.7 million (i.e. 256 x 256 x 256) distinct colours may be a bit easier to fathom!
In Part 2 of this blog series, I will delve deeper into the RGB colour model and discuss why different electronic devices do not necessarily interpret or display particular RGB values in the same way.
This post, like all others I author, is a work in progress; updated as needed. Was it informative? Easy to understand? Feel free to leave any comments or questions below!
Picture styles, as stated by Canon Inc., are "preset yet adjustable parameters that determine how your EOS DSLR will process and render its images". As far as I know, most Canon DSLRs come preloaded with several tweakable Picture Styles including Standard, Portrait, Landscape and more. These Styles offer a good working foundation for videographers in need of a quick theme or setting to optimise editing in post, for example. Of course, if you're not happy with your camera's in-built Picture Styles, you can always make your own. Using the User Def. 1-3 options in your Picture Style menu, you can modify the Sharpness, Contrast etc. of an in-built Picture Style and save it for later use. Customised Picture Styles may also be created using the Canon Picture Style Editor or downloaded from websites like this one (Canon Picture Styles), this one (Technicolor's Cinestyle Profile) or this one (Marvel Film's Cine Picture Style). Follow these 10 steps to install a Picture Style on your Canon DSLR (NB: The following instructions were written for EOS Utility Version 2.13.0 on a Windows 7 PC).:
1. Download or create a Picture Style.
2. Download and install the latest version of the Canon EOS Utility from here. You will need to specify a camera model to access the download page, even though the EOS Utility software is identical for all models.
3. Connect your camera to your computer via USB and turn the camera on.
4. Open the EOS Utility.
5. On the Menu Page, click 'Camera Settings/Remote Shooting'.
6. On the window that pops up, click the red camera icon.
7. In the Shooting Menu, click on 'Register User Defined style'.
8. The 'Register Picture Style File' window appears. Select the tab you want to save your Picture Style under (i.e. User Def. 1, 2 or 3) then click the 'Open File' button.
9. Navigate to the Picture Style you downloaded/created earlier and click 'Open'. In the image below, I am uploading Marvel Film's Cine Picture Style to User Def. 1.
10. Click 'OK'. The Picture Style will be uploaded to your camera.
NB: To delete a Picture Style from the camera, you must select 'Clear Settings' under the Camera Settings 3 icon in the Menu (yellow spanner with three dots). This is the only way to remove a Picture Style.
For more information on Canon Picture Styles, visit this link: http://www.learn.usa.canon.com/app/pdfs/quickguides/CDLC_PictureStyles_QuickGuide.pdf
Hello, and welcome to the Lonely Mountain Blog! As a homegrown videographer, I credit the majority of my education in the hardware and software needed to successfully develop and operate a video production studio to (a) trial and error (b) reading instruction manuals and (c) consulting forums on the Internet. As helpful as the latter two options can be, I am often unable to find the information I need (particularly if I am researching something fairly obscure/specific) and if I do, it is regularly outdated or communicated unclearly. I am launching this blog to help other DSLR videographers who are trying to find the same information but aren't having much luck. My plan is to address those barriers I have encountered in the past and those I will no doubt encounter on my own journey through the world of videography. I hope you find the information you need!
Tim Szewczyk -